Tests that are administered and scored under conditions uniform to all students (test-takers). Standardization is a generic concept that can apply to any testing method – from multiple-choice to written essays to performance assessments. Standardization makes scores comparable and assures, to the extent possible, that test-takers have equal chances to demonstrate what they know.
- Criterion-referenced tests (CRTs) – Standardized tests that compare a student’s performance to clearly identified learning tasks or skill levels. The basis for comparison is to a body of content knowledge and skills.
- Norm-referenced tests (NRTs)– Standardized tests that compare a student’s performance to that of other test-takers. Norms are obtained by administering the test (under the same conditions) to a given sample (drawn from the population of interest, called the norm group) and then calculating standard scores.